Before conducting laboratory planning and design, it is first necessary to understand the overall planning of the target laboratory, including the nature, purpose, mission, basis and scale of the laboratory, and determine the laboratory functions and equipment selection. The selection of instruments directly affects the layout of the laboratory.
Elements of laboratory planning
The contents involved in the planning and design of the laboratory mainly include plane layout, water source, circuit, gas path and ventilation.
Determine the overall floor plan of the laboratory and define the laboratory layout. The laboratory requirements are effectively isolated from the office area, the functional areas are clearly defined, the experiments do not interfere with each other, and the evacuation channels are unblocked.
The laboratory's water supply follows the principle of convenient access, and the sink is installed where necessary. In particular, some instruments that require an external water source must be equipped with a sink to facilitate water withdrawal.
The circuit design must take into account the overall power size, three-phase electrical requirements, and the stability of the particular instrument. To facilitate operation and meet safety management requirements, laboratories generally require independent control switches.
A correct and good grounding system is essential for the normal, reliable and safe operation of analytical laboratory instruments.
The gas supply mode has two types: centralized gas supply and separate gas supply. The gas pipeline should be clearly installed along the wall for installation and maintenance.
Ventilation is an integral part of laboratory design. In order to reduce the harm of the experimenter, the laboratory must be ventilated.
There are two types of ventilation in the laboratory, namely local exhaust and full room ventilation. Local exhaust is produced immediately after the production of harmful substances. This method can remove a large amount of harmful substances with less air volume and is widely used in modern laboratories. For some experiments where local exhaust cannot be used, or local exhaust does not meet the requirements, full room ventilation should be used. The focus of the ventilation system is the determination of the position of the inlet and outlet and the pre-burial of the tuyere.
Equipment specifications and selection
The laboratory equipment configuration content mainly includes the layout mode of the experimental bench, structural size, table selection, fume hood selection, experimental cabinet selection, safety facilities and so on.
The focus of the lab layout is security and convenience. There are several common modes:
(1) Island type
It is the most common mode. It is often used in large spaces and in rectangular interiors. This mode is characterized by smooth flow of people;
(2) Peninsula type
This is also a typical application, this mode is suitable for narrow rooms;
(3) L type
Type L is suitable for narrower room forms;
(4) U type
It is also more common with a one-line (ie side bench) layout.
The structure of the laboratory equipment is divided into an all-wood structure, a steel-wood structure and an all-steel structure. The laboratory can select different types of test benches according to specific conditions. The size of the laboratory equipment is directly related to the ease of use. The height of the sitting table is usually between 750 and 850 mml. If the male tester accounts for a higher ratio, the height is 900mm. The height of the station is between 850 and 920mm. The height of the table in the high greenhouse is 450. Between ~600 mm; the length of the workbench should generally consider 1200 mm per person (minimum should not be less than 1000mm), the organic chemistry test bench should be considered longer, 1400 ~ 1600 mm; the height of the reagent rack is 1200 ~ 1650 mm The height of the workbench is 1800 mm, the depth of the workbench is generally 750 mm, and the depth of the workbench in the high greenhouse is generally between 850 and 900 mm.
There are several types of countertop materials currently used:
(1) Epoxy resin: It is mainly composed of reinforced epoxy resin. It has the same internal and external materials. It can be repaired and restored during damage, acid and alkali, impact resistance and high temperature resistance (about 800 °C). The cost is relatively high.
(2) Corrosion-resistant psychic plate: It is made of high-quality multi-ply paper, immersed in special phenol liquid and formed by high-pressure thermosetting effect, and treated by special surface corrosion resistance. With acid and alkali resistance, impact resistance, heat resistance, economical and durable.
(3) Trespa: 70% wood fiber, 30% melamine resin, double-electron beam scanning technology to attach melamine to the surface layer, high temperature and high pressure molding, high temperature and corrosion resistance.
(4) Corrosion-resistant physicochemical veneer: It is made of kraft paper, white and special surface paper impregnated with special component phenolic resin by high temperature and high pressure. It is resistant to acid and alkali, impact and heat, but it must be used together with the substrate. .
Laboratory fume hood
The fume hood is one of the most commonly used local exhaust devices in the laboratory. It has a wide variety of air outlets due to its different structure and different operating conditions. The performance of the fume hood is good, depending on the speed at which the air moves through the fume hood.
Laboratory cabinets include medicine cabinets, medicine cabinets, dangerous goods, glassware drying and storage cabinets, clean cabinets, and biological safety cabinets.
(1) Sample cabinet
The sample cabinets for placing various types of experimental samples should have compartmentalized and labelable partitions for easy storage of samples and samples, as some samples need to be stored in a desiccator depending on the physical properties and chemical stability of the sample. Therefore, the compartments are large and small, so that different samples can be stored.
(2) Medicine cabinet
The solid chemical reagent and the standard solution are mainly placed, and the two must be placed in a sorted manner and cannot be mixed together. Place chemical reagents in a separate location for easy access. At the same time, for safety, the medicine cabinet should be provided with glass doors and windows, and the cabinet should also have certain bearing capacity and corrosion resistance.
(3) Dangerous goods storage cabinet
Suitable for simple storage and short-term storage of dangerous goods, made of stainless steel or refractory brick.
(4) Glassware drying and storage cabinet
The cleaned off-duty utensils are stored on the tray, and the brackets are fixed with the rails to make the glassware easy to access and easy to clean and dry.